2 Samuel 5


‘All the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron and said, ‘We are your own flesh and blood. In the past, while Saul was king over us, you were the one who led Israel on their military campaigns. And the LORD said to you, ‘You will shepherd my people Israel, and you will become their ruler.’ When all the elders of Israel had come to King David at Hebron, the king made a covenant with them at Hebron before the LORD, and they anointed David king over Israel. David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years. In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-three years.’ 2 Samuel 5:1-5

David Becomes King Over Israel

When everyone gathered at Hebron, they tell David that they are his own flesh and blood, in saying this they were pledging their allegiance to David, 1 Chronicles 11:1-3. They now recognise that David was to be king because God wanted him to shepherd his people.

Although we don’t know the details, David made a covenant with the people and tells them he would do as they say. Usually, when a covenant was made between parties, there would be a time of great celebration and an offering was usually sacrificed.

It was now that David began his unchallenged reign over Israel at the age of 30, which was the normal age at which a Levite priest assumed his duties.

This is now the third time David has been anointed as king, the first time he was anointed by Samuel but it was done in secret, 1 Samuel 10:1. The second time was after the death of Saul when Judah made him king at Hebron, 2 Samuel 2:1-7.

We mustn’t forget that Abner played a big part in making this moment happen when he turned his allegiance from Ish-Bosheth and brought all of Israel to David, 2 Samuel 3:12 / 2 Samuel 3:17–19.

David Conquers Jerusalem

‘The king and his men marched to Jerusalem to attack the Jebusites, who lived there. The Jebusites said to David, ‘You will not get in here; even the blind and the lame can ward you off.’ They thought, ‘David cannot get in here.’ Nevertheless, David captured the fortress of Zion—which is the City of David. On that day David had said, ‘Anyone who conquers the Jebusites will have to use the water shaft to reach those ‘lame and blind’ who are David’s enemies. ‘That is why they say, ‘The ‘blind and lame’ will not enter the palace.’ David then took up residence in the fortress and called it the City of David. He built up the area around it, from the terraces inward. And he became more and more powerful, because the LORD God Almighty was with him.’ 2 Samuel 5:6-10

After David becomes king he makes the decision to go from Hebron to Jerusalem or as it was sometimes called, Jebus, where he would function as king of Israel, 1 Chronicles 11:4-9 / Galatians 4:26.

The Jebusites were a remnant people of the Canaanites, and they still lived in the city. As the text tells us, they were very arrogant and proud of their fortified city, thinking it was impenetrable.

No one knows what this water shaft was, it could have been a water drain or sewer, or it could have been a water source which came in from outside the city, 1 Chronicles 11:4-7.

The point is that the Jebusites thought that this water shaft was the only way into the city because it was the only part of the city which wasn’t guarded.

This is the first reference to Zion in the Bible; this was the hill where the Jebusite’s fortified city was built upon. It was now going to be called the city of David, which as we now know is also called Jerusalem.

The N.I.V tells us that David built up the area around the city from the ‘terraces inward’. The K.J.V. tells us that David built the city from ‘the Millo inward’.

Millo was one of many fortified cities which had the same name, one of them is found in Shechem, Judges 9:6 / Judges 9:20. Both Solomon, 1 Kings 9:15, and Hezekiah, 2 Chronicles 32:5, in later times strengthened and repaired the Millo.

‘Now Hiram king of Tyre sent envoys to David, along with cedar logs and carpenters and stonemasons, and they built a palace for David. Then David knew that the LORD had established him as king over Israel and had exalted his kingdom for the sake of his people Israel. After he left Hebron, David took more concubines and wives in Jerusalem, and more sons and daughters were born to him. These are the names of the children born to him there: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada and Eliphelet.’ 2 Samuel 5:11-16

Hiram, who was the king of Tyre, became very supportive of David, 1 Kings 5:1 / 1 Kings 9:10-14. It appears that David not only wanted to have a strong city but he wanted to make allies with those around him, 2 Samuel 8:9. Later when David wanted to make an alliance with the Ammonites, but they rejected it, this rejection led to a war with the Arameans, 2 Samuel 10:1-19.

David is fully aware for Israel’s sake that God anointed him to be king of His people after Saul’s sinning got out of control, 1 Samuel 14:1-7 / 1 Chronicles 3:5-9. David was well aware of what God was doing through him for Israel’s benefit.

Shammua was the name of the one who was sent out by Moses to spy on the land of Canaan, Numbers 13:1. The first four sons mentioned here were born to Bathsheba, the daughter of Ammiel, 1 Chronicles 3:5.

Here again, we read about how David took more concubines and wives, although it was common practice in Old Testament times, this was a sin on David’s part, Deuteronomy 17:17.

David had added to his collection of wives and concubines in Jerusalem, along with the other six he obtained at Hebron, 2 Samuel 3:2-5, and Michal, 2 Samuel 3:14-16, and those mentioned here. It appears up until this point David had a total of fifteen or twenty wives and concubines, it becomes apparent why Solomon went on to have seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines, 1 Kings 11:3.

David Defeats The Philistines

‘When the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over Israel, they went up in full force to search for him, but David heard about it and went down to the stronghold. Now the Philistines had come and spread out in the Valley of Rephaim; so David inquired of the LORD, ‘Shall I go and attack the Philistines? Will you deliver them into my hands?’ The LORD answered him, ‘Go, for I will surely deliver the Philistines into your hands.’ So David went to Baal Perazim, and there he defeated them. He said, ‘As waters break out, the LORD has broken out against my enemies before me.’ So that place was called Baal Perazim. The Philistines abandoned their idols there, and David and his men carried them off.’ 2 Samuel 5:17-21

Earlier when Israel wasn’t united but divided, the Philistines took full advantage of Israel’s disunity because Israel was no threat to anyone, 1 Samuel 4:11.

Now that David is king and Israel has become one, the Philistines see them as a great threat and move in to remove the threat, 1 Chronicles 14:8-17. They used to see the Israelites as simple farmers and no threat to anyone but now, under David, they see that they have become a powerful military force.

The Philistines spread out in the Valley of Rephaim, which was the valley of the giants, it was located just south of Jerusalem within another valley called the valley of Hinnom, Joshua 15:8.

After inquiring of the Lord and the Lord gives him the go-ahead, we read that the waters broke out, David had obviously received some kind of advance notice of what the Philistines were planning to do and so he took his men and surprised attacked the Philistines from the east as they were moving towards Jerusalem.

Notice that the Philistines abandoned their idols and David and his men carried them off. We know that later David ordered his men to burn the idols, 1 Chronicles 14:12 / Deuteronomy 7:5 / Deuteronomy 7:25.

‘Once more the Philistines came up and spread out in the Valley of Rephaim; so David inquired of the LORD, and he answered, ‘Do not go straight up, but circle around behind them and attack them in front of the poplar trees. As soon as you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the poplar trees, move quickly, because that will mean the LORD has gone out in front of you to strike the Philistine army.’ So David did as the LORD commanded him, and he struck down the Philistines all the way from Gibeon to Gezer.’ 2 Samuel 5:22-25

Although David made a surprise attack against the Philistines when they were approaching Jerusalem and they fled, the Philistines once again decide to give it another go. David under God’s command circles behind the Philistine army to finish them off.

Notice how God brought about this victory for Israel, the noise of marching on the tops of the poplar trees made the Philistines panic, and so David and his men kills them all. This is very similar to what we read about concerning the way Gideon defeated the Midianites, Judges 7:15-23.

Gibeon was a small city near Jerusalem and Gezer, was located to the northwest of Jerusalem, 1 Chronicles 14:8-17.

We can imagine the ripple effect through all the surrounding nations after David and his men defeated the Philistines. Everyone was afraid of the Philistines and so if David and his army could defeat them, the nations around would have a whole new respect for David and his army.

Go To 2 Samuel 6


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