1 Chronicles 3


Gill, in his commentary, gives us a useful summary of this chapter.

‘This chapter gives an account of the sons of David, born to him both in Hebron and in Jerusalem, 1 Chronicles 3:1, and of his successors in the kingdom, to the Babylonish captivity, 1 Chronicles 3:10, and of his family, to the coming of the Messiah, 1 Chronicles 3:17.’

The Sons Of David

‘These were the sons of David born to him in Hebron: The firstborn was Amnon the son of Ahinoam of Jezreel; the second, Daniel the son of Abigail of Carmel; the third, Absalom the son of Maakah daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith; the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital; and the sixth, Ithream, by his wife Eglah. These six were born to David in Hebron, where he reigned seven years and six months. David reigned in Jerusalem thirty-three years, and these were the children born to him there: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon. These four were by Bathsheba daughter of Ammiel. There were also Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada and Eliphelet—nine in all. All these were the sons of David, besides his sons by his concubines. And Tamar was their sister.’ 1 Chronicles 3:1-9

This is a continuation of the genealogy of Ram that stopped with Jesse, 1 Chronicles 2:9 / 1 Chronicles 2:15, and it’s here, the writer of the book gets the point, they are now going to establish the bloodline of David.

The rest of this book and 2 Chronicles deals with the restoration of linage of David and the events surrounding the Davidic kings of Judah. In other words, the writer is going to show us that the Messiah, that is, Jesus, would be the One, God promised David would sit on his throne as ruler, 2 Samuel 7.

When David lived in Hebron for seven and a half years, he had six sons, 2 Samuel 3:2-5 / 1 Kings 3:9.

Clarke, in his commentary, says the following concerning Daniel.

‘In 2 Samuel 3:3, this person is called Chileab, he probably had two names. The Targum says, ‘The second, Daniel, who was also called Chileab, because he was in every respect like to his father.’

When David lived in Jerusalem for around 32 years, he had nine sons, 2 Samuel 5:14-16 / 1 Chronicles 14:4-7. Including births through his concubines, he had at least 19 sons, plus at least one daughter. He had at least ten concubines through whom he had sons, 2 Samuel 15:16.

The Kings Of Judah

‘Solomon’s son was Rehoboam, Abijah his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, Jehoram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son, Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son, Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son,  Amon his son, Josiah his son. The sons of Josiah: Johanan the firstborn, Jehoiakim the second son, Zedekiah the third, Shallum the fourth. The successors of Jehoiakim: Jehoiachin his son, and Zedekiah.’ 1 Chronicles 3:10-16

Here we read from David to Josiah, there were sixteen generations of father to son rulers who sat on the throne in Jerusalem. After this succession of kings, there were four sons of Josiah, and then a grandson and great grandson through Jehoiakim.

It’s important to note that Josiah was actually last anointed king by God, the other kings were put in place by the Egyptians and Babylonians.

Barnes, in his commentary, says the following.

‘Of the sons of Josiah, Johanan, ‘the first-born’, who is mentioned in this place only, must, it would seem, have died before his father, or with him at Megiddo; and Shallum, also called Jehoahaz, marginal note and reference, was considerably older than Zedekiah, and was consequently the third, and not the fourth, son. He is perhaps assigned the fourth place here by way of intentional degradation, Jeremiah 22:10-12 / Ezekiel 19:3-4.’

Shallum or Jehoahaz, as some translations have it are mentioned in 2 Kings 23:30 / 2 Chronicles 36:1 / Jeremiah 22:11. Although Shallum wasn’t the youngest, 2 Kings 23:31 / 2 Kings 24:18, he and Zedekiah had the same mother.

Gill, in his commentary, says the following.

‘Jehoiakim, whose name was Eliakim, changed for the former by the king of Egypt, when, he deposed his younger brother, and set him on the throne, 2 Kings 23:24. The third Zedekiah, whose name was Mattaniah, but changed by the king of Babylon, when he placed him on the throne in the room of his brother’s son, 2 Kings 24:17. The fourth Shallum, the same with Jehoahaz, who was first made king in the room of his father but reigning so short a time, and making so mean a figure, is mentioned last, Jeremiah 22:11.’

We must note that there are two people named Zedekiah in 1 Chronicles 3:15-16, The Zedekiah of verse 16 evidently died before the Babylonian captivity because the listing begins only through Jeconiah, or Jehoiachin, Jeremiah 22:30, the son of Jehoiakim. Zedekiah was the last reigning king of Judah before the captivity, but he wasn’t anointed as king by God, the Babylonians made him king.

The Royal Line After The Exile

‘The descendants of Jehoiachin the captive: Shealtiel his son, Malkiram, Pedaiah, Shenazzar, Jekamiah, Hoshama and Nedabiah. The sons of Pedaiah: Zerubbabel and Shimei. The sons of Zerubbabel: Meshullam and Hananiah. Shelomith was their sister. There were also five others: Hashubah, Ohel, Berekiah, Hasadiah and Jushab-Hesed. The descendants of Hananiah: Pelatiah and Jeshaiah, and the sons of Rephaiah, of Arnan, of Obadiah and of Shekaniah. The descendants of Shekaniah: Shemaiah and his sons: Hattush, Igal, Bariah, Neariah and Shaphat—six in all. The sons of Neariah: Elioenai, Hizkiah and Azrikam—three in all. The sons of Elioenai: Hodaviah, Eliashib, Pelaiah, Akkub, Johanan, Delaiah and Anani—seven in all.’ 1 Chronicles 3:17-24

Clarke, in his commentary, says the following the sons of Jehoiachin or Jeconiah, KJV.

‘Jeremiah has said in, 1 Chronicles 22:30, that Jeconiah, should be childless but this must refer to his posterity being deprived of the throne, and indeed thus the prophet interprets it himself. For no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling anymore in Judah.’

Barnes, in his commentary, says the following concerning Assir, KJV.

‘Perhaps born in the captivity, and therefore so named, who either, died young, or was made a eunuch, Isaiah 39:7 / Jeremiah 22:30. After Assir’s decease, or mutilation, the line of Solomon became extinct, and according to the principles of the Jewish law, Numbers 27:8-11, the inheritance passed to the next of kin, who were Salathiel and his brethren, descendants from David by the line of Nathan. Luke in calling Salathiel ‘the son of Neri’, Luke 3:27, gives his real, or natural, descent; since no genealogy would assign to the true son and heir of a king any inferior and private parentage. Hence, ‘Malkiram,’ etc., i.e. not Salathiel only, but his brothers also were reckoned ‘sons’ of Jeconiah.’

Zerubbabel was possibly the grandson of Shealtiel, Ezra 3:2 / Haggai 1:1 / Matthew 1:12 / Luke 3:27. Zerubbabel led the first return of captives from Babylonian territory in 536 B.C.

Coffman, in his commentary, says the following.

‘Most of these genealogies are incomplete with many breaks in the lists; but the main line is there. The line of the Davidic dynasty as well as other significant genealogies pertaining to the religious history of Israel, is here. These genealogies are thundering proof that the Bible is history and not myth or legend.’

Go To 1 Chronicles 4


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